Engineering Materials

Material is a substance which used in all work of engineering. There are more than 50,000 materials available to the engineer. The knowledge of materials and their properties are of great significance for a design engineer. The machine elements should be made of such a material which has properties suitable for the conditions of operation. In addition to this, a design engineer must be familiar with the effects which the manufacturing process and heat treatment have on the properties of the materials.

The engineering materials are classified as

a) Metal & alloy: Iron & steels, Aluminium & its alloy, Copper & its alloys etc.
b) Polymers: Polyethylene (PE), Polyvinylchloride (PVC), Nylon (PA), Natural rubber(NR) etc.
c) Ceramic & glasses: Alumina, Silica glasses & silicates, Silicon carbide, Cement &concrete etc.
d) Composites: Fiber glass (GFRP), Carbon-fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP) etc.
e) Natural materials: Wood, Leather, Cotton/wool/silk, Bone.The metals may be further classified as ferrous metals and non-ferrous metals.
The ferrous metals are those which have the iron as their main element, such as cast iron, wrought iron, steel, nickel etc.The non-ferrous metals are those which have a metal other than iron as their main element, such as copper, aluminium, brass, tin, zinc etc.

Difference between ferrous and non-ferrous metals

Ferrous MetalsNon-ferrous Metals
Iron content is more.Iron Content is missing.
The melting point is high.The melting point is low.
This is of brown and black colour.These are of different colours.
This catches rust.This doesn't catch rust.
This can be magnetized.This cannot be magnetized.
This is brittle in cold state.This becomes brittle in hot state.

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